Thursday, 18 July 2019


By BRYAN KRAMER - MP/Police Minister

Yesterday, Assistant Commissioner for Police responsible for Human Resource at Police Head Quarters, Sylvester Kalaut made an application to the Waigani District Court for a search warrant in a case pursing criminal charges against me.

The search warrant (a court order) was granted by the Waigani District Court directing the CEO of Digicel PNG to retrieve or confirm that on 27th June 2019 I posted on Facebook an article titled "So National Reporter Threatens so Sue Me???

The information sought is to determine if I am the administrator of numerous Facebook pages and did post the article and to also retrieve comments made by Facebook users in response to the article.

It appears Mr. Kalaut is pursing criminal charges against me on the grounds that the comments and remarks made by third parties were defamatory, derogatory and libelous and actually destroyed the character, integrity and reputation causing emotional distress to the complainant (Ms Dorothy Mark National Reporter).

My Response:

Well Mr. Kalaut clearly didn't think this through.

Firstly, because the last time I checked Assistant Commissioners of Police in charge of Human Resource matters don't normally take it upon themselves to take the lead in investigations making applications for search warrants against Ministers of State.

Especially Assistant Commissioners who may feel aggrieved after being overlooked for recent Acting Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner appointments.

Secondly the article was published a year ago, so I'm interested to establish where and when the complaint was filed and how it ended up on the ACP HR's desk in Police Headquarters and only acted on now.

Thirdly, you can't charge someone for a defamatory publication for comments and remarks made by third parties. The last person who tried to have me prosecuted on the same misconceived grounds was the former Prime Minister Peter O'Neill and his infamous lawyer Ms Tiffany Twivey. Unfortunately for Ms Twivey and her client the matter never went anywhere.

Fourthly, the warrant directs the Digicel PNG CEO to confirm or retrieve whether I was the author of the post and details of the comments by Facebook users.

Digicel is a mobile and ICT service provider, therefore only information they can provide is sim registration, voice mail, and SMS text messages, internet IP addresses and web sites visited and not publications in them. If the good officer is after information concerning Facebook then he needs to serve search warrant on Facebook CEO to obtain the information from their servers. Unfortunately they operate outside PNG jurisdiction.

I believe Digicel will only be able to confirm yes the Minister for Police visits Facebook website. A more efficient and common sense approach would have been to just ask me.

What happens now?

Well on account the warrant is clearly defective, abuse of process and malicious prosecution I've instructed my lawyer to file for a stay. Mr Kalaut can now find himself in court answering questions about why in his capacity as Assistant Commissioner for HR is pursuing this case and what interest he has in it.

Given the circumstances of this case I will file a complaint against Mr. Kalaut's conduct requesting Police carryout investigation to establish which individuals, if any, are behind it and in communication with him. It is a criminal offence to bring false caccusations or charges against anyone, penalty a term of upto 7 years (Section 127 of Criminal Code)

I can only assume that some people are pursuing my arrest in an effort to have me dislodged from my Ministry. While I can't blame them for trying perhaps I can blame them for stupid way in going about it.

Sadly for Mr. Kalaut he has just become famous for all the wrong reasons, an act that not only reflects on him personally, his career, but his family, his colleagues and the entire Police Force.

Food for thought - while there are some people you may mess with and get away with it, there are some you really need to think things through..

Wednesday, 17 July 2019

"I followed my wantok but there is no regrets" Sir Gibbs Salika

"I registered to take up law course at UPNG in 1975 after completing my matriculation at the Sogeri High School. Initially, I had no idea what to study after completing my form 6 (grade 12). Then I met Mathew Tamutai who is also my wantok. 

I asked him, bro, have you registered? He said, yes I have registered. What did you register for I asked him. He said I registered to study law. Then I thought to myself, I should register to take up the law course too. So just like that, I went and registered myself to take up the law course just because my wantok was going to study law so I also decided to study law together with him. So thats how it happened. It was an accident. But there are no regrets".

Sir Gibbs Salika
PNG Chief Justice & Longest Serving Judge of National and Supreme Court

Wednesday, 29 May 2019

DWU students embrace cultural values and traditions amid study commitments


THE Divine Word University (DWU) community in Madang is always pleased to host the DWU Cultural Festival every year in the third week of August.

It is a lively event with traditional songs and dances as students take the centre stage with those from neighbouring Solomon Islands also showcasing their culture. A musical group from Fiji performing at the last festival made it a somewhat Melanesian event.

  The students from all 22 provinces in the country usually participate. The public in Madang and visiting tourists and the growing expatriate community of Chinese, Filipinos and Europeans usually take the chance to see a sampling of the diverse cultures and traditions of Papua New Guinea and the Pacific.

Many students have their parents, guardians and extended relatives on campus to assist them with the preparations and performances as well.

The inclusion of mostly highlands parents is a testament to the level of pride and support they have for their sons, daughters, nephews and cousins.

The highlands students usually appear more spectacular when their elders put the finishing touches on the face painting and traditional attire.

The annual festival is set by the university administration for the students to acknowledge their indigenous roots in traditional song, dance, costumes and folklore.

Former president of the Divine Word University and now Higher Education Secretary Fr Jan Czuba said the cultural day was not a “show” but a day the students must be given a chance to reflect on the importance and values of the indigenous cultures of Papua New Guinea amidst the influences of modern ways.

Living up to the university’s slogan “Valuing our culture and heritage through collaboration”, students from various provinces in PNG put on a lively display of their cultural heritage through their bilas (traditional regalia), dancing and singing at the Madang campus.

During preparations on the day, if you go around the university, you would see parents and relatives crouched over seated students to get the arrays of beautiful feathers aligned.
It’s a proud moment for parents and relatives to see their young ones take to the arena to promote their culture.

The event has now no doubt become part of the Madang calendar and is one of the national cultural festivals with recognition from the Government through PNG Tourism Promotion Authority.

DWU, a keen promoter of Melanesian culture, encourages students to value their traditions and cultural heritage. In 1996, it was declared a university by the Government thought then Prime minister Sir Julius Chan, from Divine Word Institute.

The annual cultural event provides the avenue to get together to share heritage through songs, dancing and enactments of ceremonies.

You would be captivated by the colours of the costumes, the differences in their attire and also some of the dances you have never seen before.

There is a wider range of singsings than other cultural events in the country.
You can take as many photos as you could and there is no restriction – you might run out of space in your memory card. Note to take extra batteries and cards for your cameras if you are photographing.

DWU as a tertiary institution is a special place for students from different backgrounds to come together and study and engage in peace and harmony with each other as Jesus Christ the “Divine Word” has taught us.

DWU has remained a beautiful campus, carefully tended and well-known as a safe, peaceful and pleasant environment in which to pursue one’s higher education.
The university also has a heart, a soul, a spirit, a social, spiritual and cultural environment in which academics can easily transmit knowledge and students can grow in wisdom and grace.

Many times the international news is not good – wars, suicide bombings, terrorist attack, killing in a school or community, violence in the streets or on a university campus. The list is long. There is too much violence.
The local news is also bad, of tribal fights, murders, rapes, corruption, domestic violence and child abuse. There is too much violence.

What can any of us do about these things, this violence? Perhaps, we think, not much – except for each of us to build a habit of nonviolence in our own hearts, in our own personal behaviour.
And, we can influence others close to us to do the same. Every Papua New Guinean should be proud of your ethnic heritage and traditions.

In the country’s political events, let us passionately discuss and debate the issues that face our nation but not allow political rivalries to destroy friendship and the unity of our nation.
Leave anti-social behaviour, such as drunkenness, drug abuse, bullying, manipulation and every kind of violence out.

How wonderful it is, how pleasant it is, for God’s people to live together in harmony.
Against the background of his alluring calls comes a cacophony of traditional songs, kundus, the rhythmic beat of the brass band, bag pipe
rs, intermingled with the happy claps and delightful shouts of children and adults.

Culture is a rich tourism commodity. We have our carvings, traditional dances, arts and crafts, contemporary theatre groups and so forth.

Culture has a lot to offer to the development of the tourism industry in Papua New Guinea.
While institutions like DWU are trying to promote the cultures, all Papua New Guineans should also ensure that those cultures are protected from exploitation because they are their pride and give them their identity.

It is thus important that cultures are maintained and passed on from one generation to the next.

Students from throughout the country including those from Solomon Islands and Fiji, and our Melanesian friends from West Papua attending DWU also display their unique cultures during their cultural festival.

In 2016, Ramu NiCo in Madang also took the opportunity to display its project by way of awareness and reaching out to the public at the DWU cultural festival.

Ramu NiCo’s participation has been ongoing since its inception in Madang and such involvement is due to the strong relationship between DWU and Ramu NiCo to date.
President of Ramu NiCo, Wang Jicheng with other senior staff also visited the cultural day to experience firsthand unique cultures of the country while also supporting the promotional activities by Ramu NiCo staff during the day.

“I am very excited to come here and see the different cultures of PNG as shown by the dances and the beautiful body decorations,” Wang said.

Academics John Imbal and Nathaline Murki from the DWU’s tourism and hospitality department also did a paper on the cultural festival.
Their study reports on an assessment of the 2010 Cultural Day event and implications for management of cultural events.

It investigated the opinions and reactions of a sample of visitors to the cultural day celebrations and provides information on aspects of the promotion and programme for the event, the economic impact of the event and visitor demographics.

The assessment is intended to provide useful information as a guide for improvement of this event through promotion strategies; planning the programme, services and facilities; income generation; and economic impact.

The study should be of interest to stakeholders and the organisers for ongoing development and improvement of cultural event management.
The university student representative council (SRC) cultural committee facilitates and organises the event.

SRC secretary Lavina Lore, a third year Tourism and Hospitality student says the festival is scheduled for August 17 this year.
For more information about the festival and the tour packages, contact via email:

A brief of Hon. James Marape - Newly elected Prime Minister

James Marape, born 24 April 1971 has been a member of the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea since July 2007, representing the electorate of Tari-Pori Open.

On 30 May 2019, he was nominated and elected as the 8th Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea by the National Parliament.

Marape attended Minj Primary School and Kabiufa Adventist Secondary School. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of Papua New Guinea in 1993, and a postgraduate Honours Degree in Environmental Science in 2000. 

He was Acting Assistant Secretary of Policy with the Department of Personnel Management from 2001 to 2006.

Marape first contested the Tari-Pori seat at the 2002 election for the People's Progress Party, when voting in the Southern Highlands Province was cancelled due to widespread violence.
He contested the supplementary election in 2003, but lost to incumbent MP Tom Tomiape in a contest marred by the bashing of a polling official by his supporters.

 He challenged the result in the Court of Disputed Returns, but both his initial petition and a subsequent appeal were rejected.

He contested the seat for a second time at the 2007 election as a National Alliance candidate and defeated Tomiape. He was subsequently appointed Parliamentary Secretary for Works, Transport and Civil Aviation by Prime Minister Michael Somare. 

He was also given additional responsibilities as Deputy Chair of the Privileges Committee and member of the Parliamentary Referral Committee on Inter-Government Relations. 

He was Minister for Education from 16 December 2008 to 2 August 2011. In February 2012, he left the National Alliance Party and joined People's National Congress.

He was re-elected at the 2012 election in the Tari-Pori District. He was then appointed as Finance Minister under the O’Neill Government.

He was re-elected at the 2017 election, representing People's National Congress.

On 11 April 2019, he resigned as Minister for Finance, but remained a member of People's National Congress and the Government.

However, he resigned from the party on 29 April 2019. Sam Basil was appointed as Minister for Finance on 18 April 2019..

In May 2019 he was named as a potential candidate for replacing Peter O'Neill as Prime Minister.

Sunday, 26 May 2019

Alternative Government reaches 65 Members

There is an increase in the number of Members of Parliament in the Opposition camp as O’Neill announced his stepping aside as Prime Minister.

The increase in numbers comes after Hon. William Duma and his URP Party moved on Friday afternoon. This has caused a swing infavour of the Alternative Government which includes John Pundari, and the revolving of Douglas Tomuriesa and Francis Maneke.
The numbers in Alternative Government has now increased to 65 this afternoon as they closed the gates in Laguna to protect their numbers.

Meanwhile current Prime Minister Peter O’Neill in a Media Conference says he will write to Governor General advising of his stepping down as Prime Minister.

Once Governor General receives the letter from Peter O’Neill, he will write to the Speaker of Parliament advising of a vacancy of the Office of Prime Minister and asking the Parliament to nominate a candidate immediately.

Speaker then will advise the Parliament of the vacancy and will call for nominations. Once nominations are received, 24 hours must lapse before a vote must be taken to elect a new Prime Minister.
However, it all depends on when the Governor General receives the letter from O’Neill until then, there is NO Vacancy in the Office of Prime Minister.


Commentary by Mickey Sio - Facebook

Members of Papua New Guineas 10th National Parliament are under immense pressure and scrutiny from the over eight million citizens for a change for the better in the looming vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Peter ONeill.
The cries, calls, demands and pleas have received favourable hearing, at least from some concerned Members of Parliament (MP) who have acted responsibly.

The Opposition led by Patrick Pruaitch and its allied party leaders, Kerenga Kua, Belden Namah, Dr Allan Marat, Joseph Lelang, Garry Juffa and Bryan Kramer must be commended for their solid and steadfast stance to remain together.

The mass exodus of MPs from the current Government started after the November 2018 APEC Leaders Summit by Kerema MP Richard Mendani over extravagant spending at the expense of suffering citizens.

This was followed by Governor Eastern Highlands Governor Peter Numu over non-release and/or misuse of much-needed grants for coffee and other impact agriculture projects for his province.

In more recent weeks, the Governments chief finance and legal advisors, Finance Minister James Marape and Attorney General Steven Davis left to join the Alternate Government side over reasons including lack of consultation and breach of laws.

Days later, three pillars of the Government, Governor Sir Peter Ipatas (Enga), William Powi (Southern Highland) and Philip Undialu (Hela) withdrew their support in the Government.
The Alternate Government group led by James Marape camped at Laguna Hotel, the original Opposition moved into the Sanctuary Hotel.

The Government based its members at Crowne Plaza Hotel while, People Progress Party and its allied MPs moved into Ela Beach Hotel.
On the afternoon of May 7 2019, the Alternate Government gave Parliament Speaker Job Pomat the notice for a Motion of no confidence in Prime Minister Peter ONeill.

James Marape was named as the alternate PM, but the notice of motion was withdrawn.
Marapes has stated publicly that he withdrew because his names was mentioned in the report by the Ombudsman Commission on the Union Swiss Bank (UBS) $US1.2 billion for 10 percent stake in the ASX-listed Oil Search.

The loan did not have PNG Parliament approval leaving PNG with huge loses and UBS earning at least $US120 million in fees and interests.
On Friday (May 24 2019), United Resources Party, a coalition in current Government moved into the Laguna camp boosting the numbers to 63 in the Alternate Government.

For a Government change, 56 is he required number in the current Parliament.
The Alternate Government will soon name the leader who will lead PNG to next general election.

To all concerned MPs who have demonstrated conviction to put their people and PNG ahead of their personal, parochial and political interests, congratulations and commendation.
PNG is experiencing some of the most difficult times in all fronts.

Well done for MPs who decided to be part of that team that will save the country from financial bankruptcy and total economic collapse.

Apart from being political genius, politicians are reminded that to truly serve they must possess high and appropriate moral values to participate meaningfully and honestly in the too important decisions that are vital for the good of PNG and wellbeing of its citizens.

The Alternate Government camp is comprised of well educated, intelligent, experienced professionals as well as successful individuals in their own fields before entering politics.
From the group, guided by wisdom and good sense a candidate will be chosen through consensus in the true Melanesian spirit.

Taking into consideration the serious mess PNG is in today, the change in the nations top political post must not be for mere change.
The change must be for the betterment and wellbeing of this and future generations of PNG.

The most fundamental reason for change must be to clean the current mess and put the country back on the path of growth and recovery.

It must be made very clear that there is no new money or tool to carry out this mammoth clean-up exercise, but to use the same money and tools in a different way to do what must be done.

In short, this means the incoming Government will have to use the same money and tools PNG has now, but spend/use differently to fix the problems.

The incoming Government should consider among other recovery measures to:
Immediately enforce strict rule of law and compliance by adequately funding all State law enforcing agencies;

Establish a high-level probe, preferably a Royal Commission of Inquiry headed by non-PNG person with wide-ranging powers to fully investigate all the well-known controversies and scandals;

Review all existing project agreements between State and private companies;
Enforce the Proceeds of Crime Act to repossess all monies properties and investments in PNG and abroad that were acquired using public taxpayer funds;
Engage specialist tax auditors to investigate and recoup billions outstanding in corporate tax by defaulters; and
Institute reforms to make all State agencies and statutory authorities to perform better.
Above are few suggestions the new incoming Government to consider to help PNG address the current socio-economic problems and challenges.

The problems PNG is experiencing today far are more serious than those of the late 1990s under the Peoples National Congress (PNC) Government of the later Sir William Skate (1997-1999).

In the two years after the 1997 general election, inflation rose from 4 to 22%; interest on Treasury bills shot from 9 to 28%; foreign exchange reserves fell from US$535 million to US$89 million; and the US$ exchange rate for 1 Kina plummeted from 71 to 28 cents.

In July 1999, when the Government of Sir Mekere Morauta took office, this is what it inherited from Skates PNC Government.
The statistics were grim, but they also tell an important lesson, which is how fragile the economy can be, and how quickly and easily it can be wrecked.

As the results of the massive reconstruction effort in the two and a half years of the Morauta Government, inflation had fallen from 22 to 9% and Treasury bill rates from 28 to 9%; foreign reserves had increased almost 5-fold to US$413 million; the exchange rate had stabilised and appreciated to 31 cents.

This improvement in the macroeconomic indicators was achieved without the benefit of the very high commodity prices.

During Sir Mekeres time, the price of oil ranged between US$13 and $20 a barrel - not the $67 to $69 in the last few years. Gold in 2000 was US$240 an ounce it is now over $1,200. Copper was 70 cents a pound. The PNC Government has been swimming in money.
The magnitude of problems today under another PNC regime are far worse than the late 1990s.

The current socio-economic problems and issues are well known and we need no reminder.

But, what the MPs must be reminded of is that hundreds of thousands of PNG citizens have and will continue to will miss out only because of the greed of few individuals and stupidity of others who have succumbed to political bullies.

While political bullying is perceived to be the order of the day, the nation cannot be expected to be proud of some major decisions.
As long as political bullying continued there will be no consensus and no democracy at National Executive Council (NEC) and Government level.

True political democracy should mean elected leaders, in this case NEC Members and all MPs to do their best they could to protect public discourse.

Many MPs seem to have forgotten the Fourth Point in the National Goals and Directive Principles - To decide and protect the resources for the wellbeing of this and future generations?

If few individuals in NEC and Government have hijacked any process or provisions of any law, in deciding on any project or important decisions involving peoples money/wealth, they should be held responsible and made to account their actions/inactions.

Leaders have been vested with insurmountable powers to protect and promote the wishes and aspirations of the majority their represent and not their own greed and selfishness.

They are duty bound and more importantly have morally obligation to listen to the cries of their electors - ordinary grassroots majority citizens who call PNG home.

The over eight million citizens of Papua New Guinea await to witness how their MPs will respond to their prayers in the next few days ahead.

All road leads to the Prime Minister - Big money and massive kickbacks undermine good governance


A leader must not ‘place himself in a position in which he has or could have a conflict of interests’ and ‘shall not use his office for personal gain’ or ‘enter into any transaction or engage in any enterprise or activity that might give rise to doubt in the public mind’, Section 27 of The Constitution of The Independent State of Papua New Guinea.

Leaders in democracies around the world resign when their conduct gives rise to doubt in the public mind. In PNG such leaders are always innocent and are instead subjected to ‘administrative inquiries’ and consequently cleared by heavily compromised and weakened oversight and regulatory institutions of state. Very few have been convicted by the courts. A good many cases are pending further futile deliberations. 

Investigations begun four weeks ago into the sale of the iconic Crowne Plaza Hotel (The Sunday Bulletin; 04/11/18) revealed that many situations of conflicts of interests exist and are tolerated within the executive arm of government. Insiders alleged an entrenched culture of massive kickbacks for favourable considerations in resource exploitation; including government supply and infrastructure contracts; are open secrets. 

“Publicly available records clearly show the relationships between a few ministers and wealthy businessmen. The Prime Minister is right up there as well. Abuse of office is so obvious, it is sickening,” an evidently angry insider spit out in disgust.

Vanimo-Green River MP, Belden Namah’s call for leaders and public office holders to rescue the country from massive corruption (The Sunday Bulletin; 11/11/18) was in reference to this existing situation. 

Our findings reveal that companies mentioned in The Guardian-PNGi story (12th Nov, 2018), which incidentally, was termed as ‘fake news’ by the PM’s office, have links to the Prime Minister. 

Ethical considerations such as whether it is proper for senior political figures to retain large business interests and/or whether a Prime Minister; even after declaration of his assets to the Ombudsman Commission, and even after he absents himself from the decision making process of the NEC; is it proper if he benefits directly or indirectly from decisions made by his government? These and other issues are being heatedly debated on social media and in the corridors of power.

The Guardian-PNGi story relates that Wild Cat, the company linked to the PM, in a Joint Venture partnership with Golding PNG Ltd, was awarded a $32.86m (K111m) Asian Development Bank contract to build 12 bridges in West New Britain province in 2014. A year after awarding of contract, ADB inspectors found that work had begun on only three of the 12 bridges despite 60 percent of money paid. 

ADB then asked Department of Works to monitor progress of project and temporarily suspended further payments for lack of progress. Shortly thereafter the PM is said to have sold his shares in Wild Cat and the company changed its name to Construction and Procurement Services Ltd in October 2016. In August of 2017 an ADB report into the procurement for the project outlined a series of issues with the awarding of contracts, including deficiencies in financial management and potential integrity violations. For completion of the project ADB awarded a further contract worth $14.328m (K48m) in June this year to Chinese state owned company China Jiangsu International ETCG Ltd.

Our findings; with invaluable input from PNGi, show that firstly Construction and Procurement Services Ltd is on public records as a company owned by Theophilus George Constantinou. Sir Theo as he is known these days also owns 

The Airways franchise and The Alotau International Hotel, scene of the much vaunted Alotau accords. He is on record as being a director of Construction and Procurement Services Ltd since 15/09/2016. Sir Theo is also the owner of Hebou Constructions and the Monier Group of Companies amongst others.

The Managing Director of China Jiangsu, a Mr. Hao Zhong (Meck) Luo, is a known business associate of the Prime Minister. His company is alleged to be the contractor currently building the new Headquarters for Remington, the Prime Minister’s company (for an undisclosed amount), along the Poreporena Freeway next to CSTB building. 

A signed letter, dated 29Th June 2016, to Mr. Isaac Lupari, Chief Secretary of the Prime Minister’s Department, suggests a long and fruitful business relationship between Mr. Meck Luo and the Prime Minister. Contents of the letter state China Jiangsu International (PNG) had quite a large investment in PNG; had done a lot of projects in the remote areas for AUSAID, ADB, EU and World Bank in the 19 years it had been in PNG. 

“The Honorable Prime Minister for Papua New Guinea will have his state visit to China on the 5th of July 2016, we much appreciate if you can put our chairman Mr. Xiang Feng Peng and our country Manager Hao Zhong (Meck) Luo in the delegation team in the business parties for this state visit trip.” Meck Luo signed the letter.

These two wealthy businessmen are tied to Paradise Breweries, an IPA registered company incorporated on 15th April, 2015. Paradise Brewery, formerly known as Tannaset Ltd. Registered office at Ground Floor Investwell Building, Sect 38, Allotment 30, Cameron Road, Gordons, NCD. One Peter O’Neill is listed as sole shareholder with 101 shares. He was appointed Director on the 19th of January 2018 but resigned six months later on July 6th still retaining sole ownership of the company.

Listed Directors include; Ian Jepson(PNG),MD of Global Construction and Air Niugini Board Member, appointed 6th July 2018;Hao Zhong Luo aka Meck Luo (China), Country Manager, China Jiangsu, appointed 6th July 2018; Tiong Sii Huang aka Dato (Malaysia), timber tycoon and new owner of Crowne Plaza Hotel, appointed 10th August 2018; Jin So Poh aka Jimmy Poh aka Medicine Man (Malaysia), MD of the controversial Borneo Pacific Pharmaceuticals; Darren James Young (New Zealand), Former Executive Director of Hebou Group and current MD of Kumul Consolidated Holdings, amongst others.

“Being business associates does not necessarily give rise to a situation of conflict of interests. However, if the sole owner of Paradise Breweries sits in the highest office in the land as Prime Minister, and with the inherent powers associated with that office, super massive doubts on conflict of interests is raised in the minds of the public,” a very senior insider stated.
The number and value of recent infrastructure contracts awarded to companies these respective directors’ are associated with will inevitably point to that reaction in the public mind.